Past, present and future perspectives


A key aim of the AEO process has been to identify 'achievable action items' for recommendation to policy officials, and to AMCEN as Africa's environmental body. Urgent actions necessary to reverse the current trends in environmental degradation in Africa have been derived from the recommendations and analyses presented in the preceding chapters of this report. These actions are detailed below in the form of a 31-point list. They are summarized in a matrix presented in Annex 3. Actions are grouped in the following categories:

Implementation of the recommended actions is principally the responsibility of African governments, with technical assistance from AMCEN and sub-regional organizations. In turn, African governments, AMCEN and the sub-regional organizations may enter into partnerships with sub-regional, national and international organizations, to further facilitate implementation.


Poverty is a complex multidimensional problem. In Africa, poverty is one of the drivers of environmental degradation, largely because the poor have limited choices and depend heavily on the natural resource base. There is no uniform solution to the problem of poverty. Country-specific programmes to tackle poverty, and sub-regional, regional and international efforts supporting national efforts, are needed. At national level, a specific anti-poverty strategy is, therefore, one of the basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development. Many African countries have prepared and are implementing poverty reduction strategies and plans.

Actions which are directly relevant to the environment, and which are imperative if Africa is to reduce poverty, are as follows: