During the last quarter century, the growing attention given to energy efficiency and renewable energy and environmental issues has seen the creation and growth of NGOs, which are playing an increasingly influential role in all forms of technology transfer. NGOs provide an organisational focus for public concerns about energy and environmental issues; influence public policies at the local, state and national levels; represent their members' priorities in interaction with governments, businesses and industry; and sometimes are able to initiate programmes more rapidly and at lower costs than the traditional government programme.
The influence of NGOs within developed countries has been transferred by international NGOs and government programmes to developing and transitioning countries. With this support, energy conservation centres have been created in many countries, including Russia, China, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ukraine, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, South Korea and Thailand. The centres perform numerous functions, including public education, energy audits, professional training, development of model legislation, demonstration projects, and innovative financing schemes (IIEC, 1996).
Other reports in this collection