Technology transfer between countries confronts many of the barriers already
discussed in Section 13.4.1, although there are some additional
- Lack of clear regulatory and investment frameworks: Unclear, outdated
or impractical regulatory frameworks can pose significant challenges for project
development, and the problems may be particularly acute where international
ventures are concerned. International projects require not only clear regulations
and policies for the waste management sector, but also strong legal institutions
and clear investment and tax policies, as discussed in Section I.
- Limited financing for South-South activities: Most technology transfer
to date has been along a North-South axis, and given financial constraints
in many developing countries and CEITs , this situation is likely to continue.
Creative means of using developed country bilateral aid to provide opportunities
for South-South transfers should be emphasised, however, since these countries
may confront challenges that are unlike those found in developed countries.
In particular, these countries may find that particular waste management approaches
that are not used or not workable in developed countries are highly effective
and replicable in their situations.
- An overemphasis on projects, at the expense of capacity building activities:
Some of the most significant technology transfer activities in this sector
will be those that develop the capacities of local governments, community
groups and small private enterprises to deliver appropriate services to local
populations. Such projects typically do not require large capital investments,
but instead rely on the capacities of local groups to work together and marshal
their own resources to implement effective projects. Too often, however, technology
transfer activities focus on the development of large capital-intensive projects
that may not be appropriate or sustainable. The provision of capacity building
services requires significant commitments of time and personnel, and may lead
to the ultimate choice of technologies that are not being promoted by the
funding country (USAID, 1997). These elements may pose barriers to donor countries
attempting to develop effective capacity building programmes.