Continued from previous page
Radiative forcing is the change in the net vertical irradiance (expressed in Watts per square meter: Wm-2) at the tropopause due to an internal change or a change in the external forcing of the climate system, such as, for example, a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide or the output of the Sun. Usually radiative forcing is computed after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to readjust to radiative equilibrium, but with all tropospheric properties held fixed at their unperturbed values. Radiative forcing is called instantaneous if no change in stratospheric temperature is accounted for.
Occurs because, for example, an improvement in motor efficiency lowers the cost per kilometre driven; it has the perverse effect of encouraging more trips.
Planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use5. See also afforestation and deforestation.
Rules or codes enacted by governments that mandate product specifications or process performance characteristics. See also standards.
Energy sources that are, within a short timeframe relative to the earths natural cycles, sustainable, and include non-carbon technologies such as solar energy, hydropower, and wind, as well as carbon neutral technologies such as biomass.
Research, development, and demonstration
Scientific and/or technical research and development of new production processes or products, coupled with analysis and measures that provide information to potential users regarding the application of the new product or process; demonstration tests, and feasibility of applying these products processes via pilot plants and other pre-commercial applications.
Refer to those occurrences that are identified and measured as economically and technically recoverable with current technologies and prices. See also resources.
A component of the climate system, other than the atmosphere, which has the capacity to store, accumulate or release a substance of concern, e.g. carbon, a greenhouse gas or a precursor. Oceans, soils, and forests are examples of reservoirs of carbon. Pool is an equivalent term (note that the definition of pool often includes the atmosphere). The absolute quantity of substance of concern, held within a reservoir at a specified time, is called the stock.
Resources are those occurrences with less certain geological and/or economic characteristics, but which are considered potentially recoverable with foreseeable technological and economic developments.
Resource base includes both reserves and resources.
See interaction effect.
Continues on next page
Other reports in this collection