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Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 483 kilometres east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The ...
Published: 08 Feb 2017
Antarctic Ice
It covers about 98% of the Antarctic continent and is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. It covers an area of almost 14 million square kilometres (5.4 million square miles) and contains 26.5 million cubic kilometres. That is, approximately 61 p...
Published: 07 Dec 2016
Tierra del Fuego National Park
Tierra del Fuego National Park is studded with mountains, lakes and rivers, which form deep valleys. It is bounded on the west by the Chilean border, on the north by Lago Fagnano, and on the south by the Beagle Channel, which forms the shoreline. It ...
Published: 01 Dec 2016
Nature reserves in Hawaii
The statewide Natural Area Reserves System (NARS) was established to preserve in perpetuity specific land and water areas which support communities, as relatively unmodified as possible, of the natural flora and fauna, as well as geological sites, of...
Published: 08 Sep 2016
Linking Tourism & Conservation in East- and South Africa
Pictures in this collection illustrate existing existing examples, where tourism supports national parks or other protected areas in South- and East Africa ("LT&C-Examples") and may be used also in the context of new initiatives for LT&C-Examples in ...
Published: 16 Jun 2016
Southeast Rügen Biosphere Reserve, Germany
The Southeast Rügen Biosphere Reserve covers the southeastern part of Rügen, the largest island of Germany. Here at the Baltic Sea all the classic landscape and coastal features of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern littoral are found within one small area. ...
Published: 30 Mar 2016
Kaeng Krachan national park, Thailand
Kaeng Krachan was declared as a national park on 12 June 1981. Covering an area of 2914 km² it is the largest national park in Thailand. The park is part of a huge continuous rain forest complex deep into Myanmar covering 30,000 km². Kaeng Krachan...
Published: 31 Dec 2015
Californian Marine Reserves
California recently completed an historic overhaul of how it manages its coastal waters by revising and expanding its system of marine protected areas (MPAs). This system of MPAs is the largest scientifically based network in the U.S. and second larg...
Published: 19 Jan 2015
National Parks and examples of Linking Tourism & Conservation of Ecuador
Ecuador has nearly 30 national parks and preserves that together protect all of its varied ecosystems and approximately 17% of the national territory. Those protected areas cover everything from the country's highest mountains to the blue depths of t...
Published: 14 Nov 2014
Linking Tourism & Conservation
Linking Tourism & Conservation has a vision: A world, where travellers are inspired by experiencing nature and the beauty of natural landscapes. This is supported through a global network of well-managed protected areas that represent the world’s...
Published: 15 Oct 2014
Northeast Greenland National Park
Northeast Greenland National Park (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq, Danish: Grønlands Nationalpark) is the world's largest and most northerly national park. Established in 1974 and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protec...
Published: 29 Sep 2014
Vatnajökull Nationalpark and the protection of the Icelandic Highlands
Vatnajökull National Park, established in 2008, encompasses not only all of Vatnajökull glacier but also extensive surrounding areas. These include the national parks previously existing at Skaftafell in the south and Jökulsárgljúfur in the north, so...
Published: 18 Sep 2014
Bhutan
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia located at the eastern end of the Himalayas. It is bordered to the north by China and to the south, east and west by India. To the west, it is separated from Nepal by the...
Published: 21 Aug 2014
Dragonflies
Dragonflies, respectively the order Odonata ("toothed ones") include some of the most ancient and beautiful insects that ever roamed Earth, as well as some of the largest flying invertebrates ever to have lived.
Published: 28 Jul 2014
Flight from Europe to UNEA in Nairobi
This series shows the vary different landscape aspects one can experience on a flight along a transect from Amsterdam to Nairobi, a frequent route GRID-Arendal staff takes to serve UNEP
Published: 04 Jul 2014
Wildlife and National Parks in Lycia, Turkey
The ruins of ancient Lycia are seemingly everywhere. For reasons unknown, perhaps isolation, recycling of the building stone was minimal compared to other regions. Lycia combines huge possibilities to study both ancient history as well as rich biodiv...
Published: 21 Mar 2014
National Parks and Protected Areas in Spain
Mountains and wetlands, beaches and forests, volcanoes, lava and lakes. Spain's 14 National Parks are distinctive for their variety, but above all, for their stunning ecological wealth. Nature takes centre stage in these unique areas, some of which h...
Published: 14 Mar 2014
Oil versus protected areas in the Nenets Autonomous Region and the Komi Republic of Russia
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (also called Nenetsky or Nenetsia) is a part of the North-Western federal district of Russia. The administrative center of the region is the city of Naryan-Mar. The social and economic development of Nenets Autonomous Okrug is...
Published: 26 Nov 2013
West-Greenland
About half of Greenland's population of 55,000 live in the towns and settlements along the West Coast, including Nuuk the capital. Enormous fjord systems and small rocky islands are typical of the whole region. Disco Bay, through which the large iceb...
Published: 10 Nov 2013
Clouds and sky
Terrestrial cloud formation is the result of air in Earth's atmosphere becoming saturated due to either or both of two processes; cooling of the air and adding water vapor. With sufficient saturation, precipitation will fall to the surface; an except...
Published: 24 Oct 2013
Forests in Southern Norway and development after forest fire in Mykland
The forests in Southern Norway show the highest diversity in the country. June 9-20, 2008, happened the largest forest fire since 100 years in Norway. In the area of Mykland 26 km2 of (mainly pine-) forest burned. Now this is a unique area, where nat...
Published: 19 Sep 2013
Canada and the Arctic Council
After Finland had taken the initiative of establishing the first circumpolar Arctic cooperation with the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) in 1991, Canada initiated the follow up with the Arctic Council. The Council was established in O...
Published: 21 Aug 2013
General collection
Published: 01 Jul 2013
East Africa
Published: 19 Jun 2013
Great Arctic Reserve, Taimyrski Zapovednik and German-Russian Expeditions 1989-1991 to Taimyr
Within the former German-Soviet Environmental Agreement in the years 1989-1991 3 biological expeditions to the Taimyr peninsular in northernmost Siberia were performed. They laid the ground for a partnership agreement between the Taimyrsky Zapovedni...
Published: 08 Mar 2013
Arctic Marine Cold Water Habitats
Seafloor communities in general depend on food supplied from the water column above. It is the food supply and not the cold water temperatures per se that appear to restrain growth and survival of the seafloor animals in the Arctic. Specific habitats...
Published: 05 Mar 2013
Rovaniemi, Circumpolar Arctic Environmental Cooperation and Arctic Council
In Rovaniemi, located in Finland at the "gate to the Arctic" on the Arctic Circle at 66.6' degrees north, the circumpolar Arctic environmental cooperation started in 1991. On invitation of Finland, the environmental ministers of the eight Arctic coun...
Published: 03 Mar 2013
Deserts and Desertification
Both hot and cold desert ecosystems are home for highly specialized species, which adapted to extreme temperatures. Whereby deserts belong to the natural global bioms, the (human-caused) increasing desertification is a threat to more productive tropi...
Published: 21 Feb 2013
Greenland Arctic Desert and Northernmost Land in the World
In northern Greenland precipitation is so low, that many areas can be called Arctic deserts. In particular Peary Land has precipitation levels of only about 25 to 200 mm per year, all as snow, and was not covered by glaciers during the most recent ic...
Published: 11 Dec 2012
Alaska Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and Arctic Tundra Wilderness
The tundra of North Slopes has a rich biodiversity with some of the highest densities of Arctic birds breeding here. The biodiversity is affected by the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, which is the largest oil field in North America, covering 86,418 ha and o...
Published: 10 Dec 2012
Arendal and the Norwegian South-Coast ("Sørlandet")
Arendal, where GRID-Arendal has its offices, is the capital of the Norwegian province (Fylke) Aust Agder. Arendal is also centrally positioned in the Coastal Archipelago Park of the South Coast ("Sørlandet") of Norway. The park covers an area of the...
Published: 09 Nov 2012
Iceland's "Green Economy"
The largest pillar of Iceland's economy is fishery. The country can therefore be considered a leading example of how to implement sustainable fishery. The other main economic basis of the country are nature-based tourism and hydro- and geothermal ene...
Published: 04 Nov 2012
Rio+20
At the Rio+20 Conference, world leaders, along with thousands of participants from governments, the private sector, NGOs and other groups, came together to discuss how we can reduce poverty, advance social equity and ensure environmental protection o...
Published: 01 Jul 2012
Wadden Sea
The Wadden Sea is part of the Dutch- (Waddenzee), German- (Wattenmeer) and Danish- (Vadehavet) shallow North Sea coast. Within its intertidal zone it represents the worlds largest continuos tidal flats and extensive saltmarshes. It is rich in biologi...
Published: 02 May 2012
General collection
Published: 26 Apr 2012
The Tidal Flats of the Yellow Sea within the East Asia Pacific Flyway of Coastal Birds
The tidal flats of the Yellow Sea, mainly belonging to Korea and China, are of high international importance as "refueling" site for migratory coastal birds flying between New Zealand / Australia and Northern Siberia / Alaska on the East Asia Flyway....
Published: 20 Mar 2012
Biodiversity Hotspot Cape Floristic Region, South Africa
Evergreen fire-dependent shrublands characterize the landscape of the Cape Floristic Region, one of the world's five Mediterranean hotspots. Home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, the region is the only ...
Published: 07 Mar 2012
Lena Delta Reserve expanded as part of the Sakha Republic's (Yakutia) "Gift to the Earth"
On August 12, 1996, the Russian Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) significantly expanded the Lena Delta state nature reserve. At 14,330 square kilometres, the Lena Delta reserve was already one of the largest and most important nature reserves in the Arcti...
Published: 18 Feb 2012
Costa Rica - Model for Linking Tourism & Conservation
Costa Rica represents a most remarkable model for the linking of tourism and conservation. Costa Rica enjoys 5% of the world's biological diversity on less than 1% of the world's land area. Rapid deforestation in the 1970s led to a bold decision to s...
Published: 24 Jan 2012
Antarctica and today's Whaling
Antarctic whaling began on a large scale in 1904 with the building of a whale processing station at Grytviken, South Georgia. A number of shore-based stations were in operation under some kind of regulation on the catches very shortly after this. ...
Published: 21 Jan 2012
The Dzanga-Sangha Rainforest Reserves in the Central African Republic
The Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and Dzanga-Sangha dense forest special reserve are located in the rainforest in the south-western part of the Central African Republic, Congo Basin. They comprise a total area of more than 4 000 km2 (more than 400 000 ...
Published: 03 Jan 2012
Madagascar's Environmental Values and Challenges
Madagascar is among the world's poorest countries. As such, people's day-to-day survival is dependent upon natural resource use. They must live off the land that surrounds them, making use of whatever resources they can find. Their poverty costs the...
Published: 02 Jan 2012
Antarctica Tourism
The most visited part of Antarctica is the Antarctic Peninsular, opposite South America. The Antarctic Treaty provides guidelines, which have to be followed by tourists and expedition organizers. Tourist operators with small and medium size vessels a...
Published: 01 Dec 2011
Glacial melt in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas
Climate change is causing significant mass loss of glaciers in high mountains worldwide. There are clear overall trends indicating global glacier recession, which is likely to accelerate in coming decades. Surrounding the rivers originating ...
Published: 05 Oct 2011
Blue Carbon
Blue carbon refers to the important role that some coastal habitats play in naturally storing greenhouse gasses, thereby helping to mitigate climate change. Blue carbon ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, saltwater marshes and seagrass meadows, are...
Published: 06 Jul 2011
World Forest Ecosystems
Over 1.6 billion people depend directly on forests for their livelihoods across the world, and forests play a crucial role in the Earth's life support system - including the global carbon and hydrological cycles. Some areas of the world are experien...
Published: 08 Mar 2011
Polar Bears in Svalbard and Melting Sea Ice
The Polar Bear or Ursus maritimus is facing a range of challenges as air temperatures in the Arctic Region are rising 2 – 2.5 times faster than the global average. There are thought to be between 22,000-27,000 Polar Bears in 20 separate populations a...
Published: 10 Feb 2011
The Red Knot and Long-Distance Migration
The red knot is a migratory shorebird that travels up to 20,000 km twice a year from its breeding grounds on the high Arctic tundra to its southern non-breeding sites. Along with having one of the longest total migrations of any bird, some population...
Published: 10 Feb 2011
Relocation of Gorillas in eastern DRC
The release of the UNEP report, entitled "The Last Stand of the Gorilla", prompted the United Nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUS) to assist in the relocation of orphaned gorillas to the Tayna Nature Reserve, eastern Democracti...
Published: 13 Dec 2010
Sea Ice, Icebergs, Glaciers, Snow and Permafrost in the Arctic Region
In 2008 the United Nations Environment Program expressed extreme concern for the implications of climate change on the Arctic regions. A warming Arctic climate is projected to change sea temperature and melt ice sheets, destroying vital ecosystems wh...
Published: 13 Dec 2010
Coastal environments and Biodiversity
The coastal and underwater environments of Vanuatu harbours some of the most stunning dive sites in the Pacific Islands. Vanuatu's marine biodiversity is threatened by over harvesting of fish resources and water pollution, which is a serious issue es...
Published: 20 Sep 2010
Geothermal history in New Zealand
New Zealand is a geologically active country defined by volcanism and associated geothermalism. The characteristic coastline here is shaped both by erosion and by tectonic processes linked to its proximity to two plate boundaries. These landscapes...
Published: 20 Sep 2010
Kautokeino Reindeer Project, Finnmark
Large-scale climate changes in the Arctic may influence local climate conditions which, in turn, is likely to affect foraging conditions for reindeer, the productivity of herds and, ultimately, herders’ income and livelihood. Increases in temperature...
Published: 18 Aug 2010
Arctic Biodiversity
In 2008 the United Nations Environment Program expressed extreme concern for the implications of climate change on the Arctic regions. A warming Arctic climate is projected to cause various consequences such as melting sea ice and a rising and warmin...
Published: 17 Aug 2010
Antarctic biodiversity
Both of the Polar regions are indicators of global climate change, are extremely sensitive and have the potential to effect substantial global changes. Unlike the Arctic, Antarctica is a solid continent, surrounded by the <a href='http://www.plosone....
Published: 17 Aug 2010
African Biodiversity
Biodiversity patterns are strongly connected to land use by herbivores and human activity. Africa occupies one-fifth of the global land surface and here live a quarter of the World's approximate 4,700 mammal species and 1,600 bird species which are e...
Published: 09 Jul 2010
Life and culture in Uummannaq, Greenland
The small island of Uummannaq lies on the west coast of Greenland, a land mass where 80% of the land is covered by an ice sheet that in some places reaches up to 4km thick. Local Inuit residents rely very strongly on traditional hunting and fishing....
Published: 07 Jul 2010
Fishing industry in Uummannaq, Greenland
Halibut fishing and preparation is a major industry in Uummannaq, where in Winter, fishing boats are replaced with traditional dog sleds.
Published: 07 Jul 2010
Coastal erosion in the Seychelles
The Seychelles archipelago is a Small Island Developing State (<a href='http://www.fao.org/europeanunion/funding/country/eu_syc/en/'>SIDS</a>) with a high population density of 500 inhabitants per square kilometer. As a SIDS, life in the Seychelles i...
Published: 21 Jun 2010
Fishing industry in the Seychelles
The two major industries in the Seychelles are fishing and tourism. Being a Small Island Developing State <a href=' http://www.sidsnet.org/ '> (SIDS) </a> Seychelles faces issues relating to availability of land and resources, and vulnerability to cl...
Published: 21 Jun 2010
Fish farming and processing on the Lofoten Islands
Cod fishing is a traditional practice in Lofoten, home to around 24,500 people and and an area where locals have been producing Stockfish for over 1000 years. Lofoten is where the World's largest and last cod stocks are found, in the Barent's Sea. Fi...
Published: 05 Jun 2010
The Mining Industry
Mining is a global industry that underpins industrial development in many regions. It is a key sector not only because it is the source of essential raw materials, but also because it potentially leads to economic and social development but mining ac...
Published: 05 Jun 2010
The Critical role of Oceans in Maintaining our Climate
Released in October 2009 in Cape Town, GRID-Arendal has compiled a new Rapid Response Assessment report, the objective of which is to highlight the critical role of the oceans and ocean ecosystems in maintaining our climate and in assisting policy ma...
Published: 31 May 2010
Marine Pollution in Bali
Problem areas recognised by UNEP dealing with pollution, as a result of development or destruction of valuable ecological elements.
Published: 31 May 2010
Sea Ice and Traditional Practices in Greenland
For many people in Greenland the snowmobile has assumed the role of the modern successor to the dogsled. The vast majority of hunters, however, have chosen to stick to the traditional sleds and in certain cases hunting is not allowed on snowmobiles. ...
Published: 17 Aug 2009
Traditional Culture and Dog-Sledding in Greenland
Traditional dog sledding near Uummannaq, Greenland in May 2009. In Eastern and Northern Greenland the dogsled continues to play an important role today as a means of transport for fishermen and hunters, as it has done for several thousand years. Rece...
Published: 17 Aug 2009
The state of Glaciers in Greenland
Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest indicators of climate change and this highly sensitive region is profoundly effected by subsequent changes in weather patterns. The precipitation/freeze/melt cycle of <a href='http://maps....
Published: 17 Aug 2009
Climate change and Shishmaref, Alaska
The effect of global climate change upon Shishmaref is sometimes seen as the most dramatic in the world. Rising temperatures have resulted in a reduction in the sea ice which serves to buffer Shishmaref from storm surges and Shishmaref is facing pote...
Published: 18 Jul 2009